Creating 4D spatiotemporal models of urban building stocks in the UK

Integration of circular economy systems within the construction industry requires assessments of the massed quantities of materials within constructions (stocks) and the rates in which they are accumulating or decreasing over time (flows). While flows can be studied by accounting for new construction projects, renovations or demolitions, accounting for stocks is often challenging due to the vast, varied and undocumented measures that have taken place in the past, sometimes centuries ago.

The REBUILD project aims to come up with a novel spatially-explicit assessment model of the UK building material stocks, and incorporate historical data of buildings and land use into a 4D-GIS model. Specifically, the REBUILD stocks model assembles building quantities, locations, dimensions, types, history and material contents into one integrated dataset.

REBUILD has created a 3D model of buildings  in three Northern UK Cities to estimate the total quantity of brick, steel elements and concrete in housing and commercial buildings. The model integrates a wide range of data sets and a building typology system that allows estimates to be conducted at city-scale or at individual building scale.


Modelling spatial representation of buildings accounts for the geometrical dimensions of urban features such as heights and ground footprints.
A 3D building representation map of Bradford’s buildings
Representation of stocks of contemporary bricks (post 1960) in Bradford